Leadership Studies

Courses

LEAD 120(S)America and the World

The object of this course is to introduce students to international relations and American foreign policy through a study of the problems and dynamics of America's contemporary situation. Several general themes emerge over the semester. What are the major forces driving American foreign policy; that is, what causes change and continuity in the American approach? How have American statesmen thought about these issues? What are the dynamics of particular foreign policy problems? And, most importantly, what policies should the United States pursue? To get a handle on these issues we will study American foreign policy traditions, American strategy during and after the Cold War, terrorism, the contemporary Middle East, and other topics of current interest. [ more ]

Taught by: Milan Babik

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LEAD 125(F)Leadership, Power and Legitimacy: An Introduction to Leadership Studies

Leadership has long been a central concept in the study of politics. Philosophers from Plato to Machiavelli have struggled with the question of what qualities and methods are necessary for effective leadership. Social scientists throughout the twentieth century have struggled to refine and advance hypotheses about leadership in the areas of economics, psychology, and sociology, among others. Nevertheless, despite all of this impressive intellectual effort, the study of leadership remains a contested field of study precisely because universal answers to the major questions in leadership studies have proven to be elusive. This course is designed to introduce students to many of the central issues and debates in the area of leadership studies. [ more ]

LEAD 135 T(F)The Great War, 1914-1918

During the nineteenth and early twentieth century Europeans and their immediate offspring created the modern world. European industry, science, trade, weapons, and culture dominated the globe. After a century of general peace the continual "progress" of Western Civilization seemed assured. Then, in August, 1914, the major European powers went to war with one another. After four years of unprecedented carnage, violence, and destruction, Europe was left exhausted and bitter, its previous optimism replaced by pessimism, its world position undermined, and its future clouded by a deeply flawed peace settlement. What were the fundamental causes of the Great War? How and why did it break out when it did and who was responsible? Why was it so long, ferocious, wasteful, and, until the very end, indecisive? Why did the Allies, rather than the Central Powers, emerge victorious? What did the peace settlement settle? How was Europe changed? What is the historical significance of the conflict? [ more ]

LEAD 150Movers and Shakers in the Middle East

Not offered this year

This course examines the careers, ideas, and impact of leading politicians, religious leaders, intellectuals, and artists in the Middle East in the twentieth century. Utilizing biographical studies and the general literature on the political and cultural history of the period, this course will analyze how these individuals achieved prominence in Middle Eastern society and how they addressed the pertinent problems of their day, such as war and peace, relations with Western powers, the role of religion in society, and the status of women. A range of significant individuals will be studied, including Gamal Abd al-Nasser, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Ayatollah Khomeini, Muhammad Mussadiq, Umm Khulthum, Sayyid Qutb, Anwar Sadat, Naghuib Mahfouz, and Huda Shaarawi. [ more ]

LEAD 157From Powhatan to Lincoln: Discovering Leadership in a New World

Not offered this year

The collision of cultures and peoples in colonial North America created a New World that demanded new forms of political leadership. This course explores the history of leadership from the colonial era to the Civil War through the study of consequential individuals whose actions shaped seminal moments in American history. As often as possible, the course will analyze rival leaders to understand the many different forms of leadership that existed throughout American history and how historical contexts affected individual decisions. The course opens with Powhatan, whose Native American empire spanned the East Coast of North America, and John Smith, who confronted this Indian empire as he tried to establish England's first toehold in the New World, and it ends with Abraham Lincoln, who tried to keep together a nation that Jefferson Davis aimed to destroy. In between, the course will explore colonial leaders like John Winthrop, the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony; African American leaders like Gabriel Prosser, who led a slave rebellion, and Richard Allen, a free black abolitionist; presidents like George Washington and Thomas Jefferson; First ladies like Abigail Adams and Dolley Madison; advocates for women's rights like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, and others. Providing a survey of early American history through the study of these individuals, students will have a deeper appreciation of how historical processes shaped leaders--and how leaders have shaped history. [ more ]

LEAD 165(F)Going Nuclear: American Culture in the Atomic Age

Ever since the Manhattan Project produced atomic weapons for Harry Truman to use against Japan at the end of World War II, atomic science has fueled Americans' fears, hopes, nightmares, and fantasies. This course will examine all aspects of American nuclear culture, from scientists' movements to abolish atomic weapons and expand peaceful atomic energy production to dystopian fiction about the nuclear apocalypse. It will investigate the role of the nuclear arms race in the cold war and the development of civil defense and bomb shelter culture in the United States. Using scholarly books and articles, primary sources, novels, and films, we will explore the interactions between science, diplomacy, and culture in the nuclear age. In this writing intensive course, we will focus on analyzing sources, writing clearly and effectively, and making persuasive arguments. Students will not only learn about history, but they will learn to think and write as historians. [ more ]

LEAD 205(F, S)Democracy in America: From the Founding to Facebook

We all know that we live in a democracy. But what it has meant to be citizens in a democratic republic has changed dramatically over the course of American history---as have the bounds of who has been allowed to exercise the full rights of citizens. In this course, we will look at how new ideas, social movements, and technological changes have reshaped American democracy. We will examine how founders such as Benjamin Franklin and James Madison envisioned the relation between the people and the government; how workers, African Americans, and women fought to participate in American politics; and the ways in which new technologies such as Facebook and Twitter are reshaping democratic participation in the 21st century. We will ask: Who, exactly, has been permitted to participate in American politics, and on what terms? How has the relation between the governors and the governed changed over time, and what factors and events have shaped those relations? How have those in power been "connected" to the people, and vice versa? How has America's democratic experiment compared with (and interacted with) democracy elsewhere in the world? Finally, we will use our understanding of democratic politics and citizenship to deepen our understanding of leadership/followership, as both historical phenomena and durable features of the American political system. How have relations between leaders and followers changed as the practices of citizenship have changed? Have some periods of American democratic politics been more amenable to particular kinds of leadership than others? If so, why? Has American political leadership been distinctive in international comparison, and if so, what does this reveal about the distinctive characteristics of American democratic politics and citizenship? [ more ]

Taught by: Mason Williams

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LEAD 206 TDangerous Leadership in American Politics

Not offered this year

Leadership in American politics today is typically celebrated. A common assumption is that those who do it well--whether in the presidency, the parties, social movements, organizations, or local communities--are just and legitimate agents of democratic change, and those most celebrated are those who have helped the country make progress toward its ideals. Yet to rest on this is too simple as it is, in part, an artifact of historical construction. Assessing leadership in the moment is complicated because leaders press against the bounds of political convention--as do ideologues, malcontents, and lunatics. Indeed, a central concern of the founders was that democracy would invite demagogues who would bring the nation to ruin. Complicating things further, the nature of democratic competition is such that those vying for power have incentive to portray the opposition's leadership as dangerous. How do we distinguish desirable leadership from dangerous leadership? Can they be the same thing? Many who today are recognized as great leaders were, in their historical moment, branded dangerous. Others, whose ambitions and initiatives arguably undermined progress toward American ideals, were not recognized as dangerous at the time. In this tutorial, we will explore the concept of dangerous leadership in American history, from inside as well as outside of government. What constitutes dangerous leadership, and what makes a leader dangerous? Is it the person or the context? Who decides? How do we distinguish truly dangerous leadership from the perception of dangerous leadership? Does dangerous describe the means or the ends of leadership? Does it matter? Is leadership that privileges desirable ends, such as justice or security, at the expense of democratic means acceptable? Is democratic leadership in service of "dangerous" goals acceptable, and what are these goals? [ more ]

LEAD 207(F)The Modern Middle East

This survey course addresses the main economic, religious, political and cultural trends in the modern Middle East. Topics to be covered include the cultural diversity of the Middle East, relations with Great Powers, the impact of imperialism, the challenge of modernity, the creation of nation states and nationalist ideologies, the discovery of oil, radical religious groups, and war and peace. Throughout the course these significant changes will be evaluated in light of their impact on the lives of a variety of individuals in the region and especially how they have grappled differently with increasing Western political and economic domination. This course is part of the Exploring Diversity Initiative because it compares the differences and similarities between different cultures and societies in the Middle East and the various ways they have responded to one another in the past. [ more ]

Taught by: Stacy Fahrenthold

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LEAD 212Sister Revolutions in France and America

Not offered this year

In the late-eighteenth century, two revolutions burst forth-they were the most striking and consequential events in modern history, decisive turning-points that transformed society and politics. This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the overarching ideas and visions of the sister revolutions. Through correspondence, political essays and speeches, we will seek to understand the fundamental theories, goals and accomplishments of both revolutions. Who were their leaders and according to what principles did they govern? Did revolutionaries in France find a model in America for their Revolution? What is the meaning of the "Terror" in France and what light does it shed on modern revolutionary movements? Why was the American Revolution followed by decades of stability while the French Revolution bequeathed a turbulent succession of failed governments? Have America and France continued to conceive of themselves as revolutionary nations? We will read works by Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, Adams, Rousseau, Robespierre, Saint-Just, Tocqueville, Burke and others. [ more ]

LEAD 218The American Presidency

Not offered this year

To study the presidency is to study human nature and personality, constitution and institution, strategy and contingency. This course will examine the problems and paradoxes that attend the exercise of the most powerful political office in the world's oldest democracy: Can an executive office be constructed with sufficient energy to govern and also be democratically accountable? How much do we attribute the shaping of politics to the agency of the individual in the office and to what extent are politics the result of structural, cultural, and institutional factors? Are the politics of the presidency different in foreign and domestic policy? How are national security concerns balanced with domestic priorities such as the protection of civil liberties? How is the office and purpose of the presidency affected by an economic order predicated on private capital? Exploration of these questions will lead us to examine topics such as presidential selection, the bases of presidential power, character and leadership issues, congressional-executive relations, the media, and emergency powers. Attention will focus largely on the modern presidency, though older historical examples will also be used to help us gain perspective on these problems. [ more ]

LEAD 221(F)Contemporary Political Philosophy

Roughly the first half of this seminar will be devoted to a critical examination of the survey of contemporary Anglo-American political philosophy presented by Will Kymlicka in the second (2002) edition of Contemporary Political Philosophy. An Introduction. Central topics for consideration will be the following positions (to each of which Kymlicka devotes a chapter): utilitarianism, liberal equality, libertarianism, Marxism, communitarianism, citizenship theory, multiculturalism, and feminism. Topics for consideration thereafter will be determined by specific student interests; the topics will be selected from those included in the second (2012) edition of A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, edited by Robert E. Goodin, Philip Petit, and Thomas Pogge. FRANCIS provides access to an electronic version of this book; interested students should consult it to see the topics treated in its forty-five chapters. [ more ]

Taught by: TBA

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LEAD 226(S)Silent Warfare: Surveillance and Intelligence in American Foreign Policy

This course will deal with the complexities of the American intelligence community, its activities, and its recent controversies. An important purpose of the course is to demystify intelligence activity and place it in its proper perspective as an important and necessary aspect of American foreign policy. Another purpose of the course will be to familiarize students with the role that intelligence and surveillance plays in the decision-making process in American foreign and national security policy. We will also examine historical and current controversies over the role of intelligence and surveillance. [ more ]

Taught by: Douglas MacDonald

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LEAD 242America and the Vietnam War

Not offered this year

Every American president from Franklin Roosevelt to John F. Kennedy sought to avoid a commitment of ground forces to Vietnam. Lyndon Johnson also feared the consequences of a massive American commitment, but he eventually sent over half a million men to Vietnam. Richard Nixon hoped to conclude a peace with honor when he assumed the presidency, but the war lasted for another four years with many additional casualties. This course examines the complex political processes that led successive American presidents to get involved in a conflict that all of them desperately wanted to avoid. We will examine both the international and domestic context of the war, as well as pay close attention to both South and North Vietnamese perspectives on the war. In addition, we will examine the long-standing arguments among both historians and political scientists over how to explain and interpret the longest and most controversial war in American history. [ more ]

LEAD 250(S)Political Leadership

This course will examine the leadership strategies of American political leaders with an emphasis on the importance of communication strategies for public sector leaders. We will study these issues by examining local, state and federal political leaders and by answering key questions specific to the political realm. We will read and watch significant speeches of American political leaders, be visited by guests with deep knowledge and insight into the world of politics and read a variety of writings by academics and practitioners on the subject. We will explore questions such as "What characteristics mark successful communication and how do leaders craft a unique and effective communications style?" and "What strategic considerations are there for female political leaders and do they have different challenges in communicating?" The first series of classes will focus on communication taking a look at some of America's best political orators, the special requirements of crisis communication and the changes that new media has brought to the practice of politics and government. We will then explore the tenets of political strategy--both in campaigns and governing. This segment of the course will take a look at the tools used in crafting a strategy and how to put together a winning coalition. The final classes in the course will explore the unique challenges and opportunities facing select sub-groups of political leaders: women, celebrity candidates and officeholders and high-achieving young political leaders--operatives and elected officials. [ more ]

LEAD 255Perspectives on the American Revolution

Not offered this year

The American Revolution remains one of the most-studied events in American history. Yet, agreement about its main causes, significance, and purpose remains as distant as ever. Some historians argue that political ideas and principles brought about calls for Independence. Others emphasize the economic motives behind revolutionary fervor. Still others argue that British political institutions failed to adapt to the needs of a growing empire, leading colonists to replace British imperial rule with a form of government suited to their local exigencies. Some have told the story through the eyes of the Founding Fathers, while others have explored what the American Revolution meant for the lived experience of average citizens, of women, of free and enslaved African Americans, of Native Americans, and of peoples living beyond North America. Collectively, such a range of studies speaks to the significance of the American Revolution. Individually, however, these varying perspectives provide a fragmented picture of the era and its people. Through readings, lectures, and primary sources, this class will explore these different views of the Revolution and try to create some synthetic unity out of this historical kaleidoscope. [ more ]

LEAD 259The Politics of Presidential Leadership, 1776-1860

Not offered this year

This course will trace the development of the presidency from George Washington to Abraham Lincoln. By focusing on the most consequential presidents of the period, the class will explore presidential successes and failures during times of peace and prosperity and during times of war and depression. As often as possible, the class will also examine the tactics of these presidents' political rivals to understand how competing politicians tried to navigate the social and political terrain of their day. Through the study of biography and primary sources, students will offer critical appraisals of presidents and leave the course with a historical understanding of the types of challenges that those who have held the office have often faced. The course will also provide an in-depth survey of United States political history during the tumultuous early years of the nation. [ more ]

LEAD 262America and the Cold War

Not offered this year

This course examines the rise and fall of the Cold War, focusing on four central issues. First, why did America and the Soviet Union become bitter rivals shortly after the defeat of Nazi Germany? Second, was one side primarily responsible for the length and intensity of the Cold War in Europe? Third, how did the Cold War in Europe lead to events in other areas of the world, such as Cuba and Vietnam? Finally, could the Cold War have been ended long before the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989? Political scientists and historians continue to argue vigorously about the answers to all these questions. We examine both traditional and revisionist explanations of the Cold War, as well as the new findings that have emerged from the partial opening of Soviet and Eastern European archives. The final section of the course examines how scholarly interpretations of the Cold War continue to influence how policymakers approach contemporary issues in American foreign policy. [ more ]

LEAD 285(S)The Revolutionary Generation: Galaxy of Leaders

The American Revolution produced a galaxy of brilliant politicians and statesmen of extraordinary courage, intellect, creativity, and character. They succeeded in drafting an unparalleled Constitution and establishing enduring democratic political institutions while nevertheless failing to grapple with the wrenching issue of slavery and the rights of women. In this course, we will explore the lives, ideas, and political leadership of these men, most of whom belonged to the social elite of their day: Washington, Madison, Jefferson, Adams,and Hamilton. We will study in depth their superb writings, such as the correspondence between Madison and Jefferson and between Adams and Jefferson, and Madison's and Hamilton's Federalist essays. We will also read recent interpretations of the founding generation by Gordon Wood, Joseph Ellis, Bernard Bailyn, and others. [ more ]

LEAD 295(F)Leadership and Management

What are the differences between effective leaders and effective managers of complex organizations, or are they one and the same? If different, what are the key elements making each successful, and are there any critical dynamics or interdependencies among these elements? Finally, are there important distinctions between the factors required for success by leaders/managers in different domains or cultures, and by leaders/managers of different genders or ethnicities? In this course, we will wrestle with these questions by examining both successful and unsuccessful leadership and management of complex organizations in a number of domains, including the worlds of business, non-profits, higher education, the military, government, and others. Our primary means of doing so will be through case studies, supplemented by readings from noted leadership and management thinkers, and by the appearance of several distinguished guest speakers. [ more ]

LEAD 301(S)Museums: History and Practice

This course will examine the history of museums in Europe and America, focusing on historical traditions and current expectations affecting institutional operations today. Historical tradition and current practice as they relate to museum governance and administration, architecture and installation, acquisitions and collections, and cultural property issues as well as the many roles of exhibitions in museum programming will be addressed, along with museums' social responsibility as scholarly and public institutions in an increasingly market-driven, nonprofit environment. [ more ]

LEAD 310(S)Leadership in Hard Times: Governance and Activism in America's Urban Crisis

Politics, the philosopher Hannah Arendt tells us, is a means of intervening in otherwise "automatic" processes. It follows that political leadership---whether exercised by elected officials or community activists---represents a vital instrument by which people may attempt to shape the social processes that structure their communities and their everyday lives. Seldom have American communities had greater need for creative and effective leadership than did American cities following the Second World War---yet seldom has this kind of leadership proven more difficult to realize. In the postwar years, cities, the drivers of the nation's phenomenal economic growth for nearly a century, confronted a host of new challenges: declining private investment; the out-migration of their middle and upper classes and, consequently, a new position as sites of concentrated poverty; persistent fiscal crises; seemingly endless ethno-racial conflict; and the rise of new epidemics---drug use, AIDS, and mass incarceration. By the mid-1960s, these challenges had come together in the public discourse to signify a general "urban crisis." This course will introduce students to the processes that have shaped American urban life since the Second World War (some of which, we will see, were in fact far from "automatic"). We will also examine how public officials and community leaders tried to intervene to shape those processes, what resources they could muster for doing so, and what came of their efforts---so as better to understand the possibilities and the limits of leadership in hard times. What kinds of leadership are possible when a zero-sum logic obtains, when social "problems" prove "insoluble," when "positive" action appears impossible? Must urban leaders operating in such conditions necessarily privilege the interests of a particular class? What happens when government and community leaders act upon incompatible visions of social justice and the public good? [ more ]

Taught by: Mason Williams

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LEAD 311(F)Congress

In an organization comprised of equals, how and why do some senators and representatives acquire more power and authority than others? How does Congress, often considered to be the most powerful assembly in the world, organize itself so that it can act as an institution and not just a platform for 535 individuals? Why does Congress not act, especially when the U.S. confronts so many pressing problems, and how do legislators justify inaction? In what ways does this institution promote-or hinder-the legitimacy, responsiveness, and responsibility expected of a democratic governing institution? [ more ]

LEAD 312 T(S)American Political Thought

From democracy to liberty, equality to community, foundational ideas -- about what makes for good government, about what constitutes the good society, about what is necessary to lead a good life -- define the American political tradition and consume the American political imagination. Designed not only to uncover these (sometimes melodious, sometimes cacophonous) values but also to place current ideological debates about them in a broader developmental context, this tutorial will offer a topical tour of American political thinking from the birth of nationalism in the colonial period to the remaking of conservatism and liberalism in the early twenty-first century. Utilizing primary source material ranging from presidential speeches to party platforms, newspaper editorials to novels, we will seek to interrogate -- reconciling where possible, distinguishing where necessary, interpreting in all instances -- the disparate visions and assessments of the American political experience offered by politicians, artists, intellectuals, activists, and ordinary citizens over the course of more than two centuries. Our focus, then, is nothing less than the story of America -- as told by those who lived it. [ more ]

LEAD 314(F)Leadership in American Political Development

From the Founding to the present, the American political order has undergone incredible, cataclysmic and thoroughgoing transformations, yet it has also proven to be remarkably enduring. How can this be? Where do we find continuities and where upheavals? What accounts for the continuities, and what for the changes? What sorts of transformations have been possible, and who or what has made them possible? Finally, what are the costs of change (and of continuity)--and who pays them? The goal of this course is to assess American political change, or lack of, and to gain a sense of the role that individual leaders have played in driving change. We will examine when and how individual agency and leadership has mattered vis-a-vis broader historical and contextual factors, including economic developments, demographic change, and constitutional and institutional parameters. After examining general models of change and of leadership, we will consider specific case studies, such as civil rights for African-Americans, gender equality, labor demands, and social conservatism. We will consider some of the complicated legacies of change. Finally, we will look at arguments that America has been "exceptional"--or, unlike other countries--as well as critiques of these arguments, to help us gain an understanding of future prospects for political transformation. [ more ]

LEAD 320(F)Leadership and Historical Memory

In this course we will examine how Americans have used the concept of leadership as a lens for viewing our past, and, conversely, how our assessments of particular leaders have changed as new ideas and events have reshaped how we understand our history. To address these questions, we will study portrayals of four of the most famous leaders in American history---Abraham Lincoln, Eleanor Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr. As we explore how portrayals of these leaders have changed over time, we will ask: How have our conceptions of leadership, and the qualities effective leaders possess, evolved? In what ways do leaders serve as symbols in historical memory for the times in which they lived and acted? Might assessments of these leaders reveal as much about the times in which they were produced as about the leaders' own historical moments? In what ways is the concept of "leadership" itself a historical construction? Our sources will include literature, film, and journalism as well as biography and history. For their term paper assignment, students will write a 10-12 page paper examining questions of historical memory for a leader of their own choosing. [ more ]

Taught by: Mason Williams

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LEAD 323Leadership, Government, and the Governed in Ancient Greece

Not offered this year

Visionary, opportunist, reformer, tyrant, demagogue, popular champion: concise characterization of influential leaders is often irresistible. But placing leaders in their much less easily encapsulated political, social, and religious contexts reveals them to be far more complicated and challenging subjects. Among the questions that will guide our study of Greek leadership: Was the transformative leader in a Greek city always an unexpected one, arising outside of the prevailing political and/or social systems? To what extent did the prevailing systems determine the nature of transformative as well as of normative leadership? How did various political and social norms contribute to legitimating particular kinds of leader? After studying such leaders as the "tyrants" who prevailed in many Greek cities of both the archaic and classical eras, then Athenian leaders like Solon, Cleisthenes, Cimon, Pericles, Cleon, and Demosthenes, and Spartans like Cleomenes, Leonidas, Brasidas, and Lysander, we will focus on Alexander the Great, whose unique accomplishments transformed every aspect of Greek belief about leadership, national boundaries, effective government, the role of the governed, and the legitimacy of power. Readings will include accounts of leadership and government by ancient Greek authors (e.g. Homer, Solon, Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, Demosthenes, all in translation) and contemporary historians and political theorists. [ more ]

LEAD 325The Roosevelt Style of Leadership

Not offered this year

In this course we will study the lives, ideas, visions and, above all, the political and moral leadership of Theodore, Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt. The three Roosevelts transformed the role of government in American society, bringing about fundamental and lasting change. What were their leadership strategies and styles? Did they mobilize followers or did their followers mobilize them? How did they balance political compromise with bold, principled leadership? How did their personalities affect their visions and their goals? To what extent did they offer ethical and moral leadership? In addition to studying histories and biographies, we will do extensive research in primary source material. [ more ]

LEAD 338 T(F)Garveyism

This course explores the life, work, political thought, and activism associated with the Jamaican Pan-Africanist Marcus Mosiah Garvey and the transnational movement--Garveyism--that Garvey ushered into the modern world. We will investigate the founding of Garveyism on the island of Jamaica, the evolution of Garveyism during the early twentieth century across the Americas and in Africa, Garveyism in Europe in the mid-twentieth century, and the contemporary branches of the Garvey movement in our own late modern times. The implications of Garvey's conflict with W. E. B. Du Bois and the subsequent cleavages in political thought and allegiances among their respective adherents will be addressed, along with various other core issues including: the relationship between race, nation, and empire; transnationalism; the meaning of power; notions of leadership; the limitations of understanding Garveyism by the phrase "Back-to-Africa"; the moral philosophy of respect, reparation, and redemption; prophetic political theory; Pan-Africanism; the impact of Garveyism on political theological movements such as the Nation of Islam and Rastafari; women in the Garvey movement; and Garveyite strategies for forging models of political solidarity in dark times. [ more ]

LEAD 340(S)Great Astronomers and Their Original Publications

In this academic year of the study of the book, honoring the new library and the expansion of the Chapin Library of Rare Books, we study many of the greatest names in the history of astronomy, consider their biographies, assess their leadership roles in advancing science, and examine and handle their first-edition books and other publications. Our study includes the original books published as follows: 16th-century, Nicolaus Copernicus (heliocentric universe); Tycho Brahe (best pre-telescopic observations); 17th-century, Galileo (discoveries with his first astronomical telescope, 1610; sunspots, 1613; Dialogo, 1632), Johannes Kepler (laws of planetary motion, 1609, 1619), Johannes Hevelius and Elisabeth Hevelius (atlases of stars and of the Moon, 1647 and 1687), Isaac Newton (laws of universal gravitation and of motion, 1687); 18th-century, Edmond Halley (Miscellanea curiosa, eclipse maps, 1715, 1724); John Flamsteed and Margaret Flamsteed (Atlas Coelestis, 1729); William Herschel and Caroline Herschel (1781, 1798). In more recent centuries, the original works are articles: 20th-century: Albert Einstein (special relativity, 1905; general relativity, 1916); Marie Curie (radioactivity); Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (hydrogen dominating stars, 1929), Edwin Hubble (Hubble's law, 1929); Vera Rubin (dark matter, 1970s); Jocelyn Bell (pulsar discovery, 1968); 21st-century: Wendy Freedman (Universe's expansion rate, 2000s). We will also read biographies and recent novels dealing with some of the above astronomers. With the collaboration of the librarians, we will visit not only the Chapin Library of Rare Books but also the rare-book library at the Clark Art Institute to see its works of astronomical interest. [ more ]

LEAD 345 T(S)Biography as American History

Biography is easily the most widely read form of American history today; in fact, historical biography is among the most popular of all literary forms in contemporary America. Yet historians oftentimes treat the genre with suspicion; moreover, they have engaged in relatively little sustained reflection about how biographical approaches might illuminate major historical questions. For its part, leadership studies treats biography as a fundamental mode of analysis; yet the genre is problematic, for its conventions sometimes obscure the social/structural contexts within which leadership is practiced. In this course, we will view American history through the lens of biography, asking what this genre reveals about the past as well as what it conceals. We will also conduct critical inquiries into the relationship between historical analysis and biography and the practice of writing history through biography. What tensions exist between history and biography, and how have writers sought to negotiate these tensions? What have historians sought to use the biographical form to do, and how successful have they been in achieving their objectives? What do biographers' choices---their narrative emphases as well as their choices of subject---reveal about their conceptions of history? How has the writing of analytical biography changed over time? How have its practitioners sought to innovate, and toward what ends? Above all, we will seek to develop a deeper sense of the relationship between people and processes, between individual lives and history---issues fundamental to a historical understanding of leadership. [ more ]

Taught by: Mason Williams

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LEAD 357(F)Leadership at the American Founding

No definition of "leadership" will ever prove adequate, though we know it when we see it. We obviously see it in George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Franklin Roosevelt, and Martin Luther King, all of whom are safely enshrined on the National Mall. Do we see it, collectively, in the revolutionary generation? What did they achieve, what did they fail to achieve, and how should we assess their legacy? These are the core questions we will address in this course. Special attention will focus on Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams. Each student will be required to write a research paper rooted in primary sources on their favorite, or least favorite, Founding Father. [ more ]

Taught by: Joseph Ellis

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LEAD 360The Political Thought of Frantz Fanon

Not offered this year

Martinican psychiatrist, philosopher, and revolutionary Frantz Fanon was among the leading critical theorists and Africana thinkers of the twentieth century. Fanon ushered in the decolonial turn in critical theory, a move calling on those both within and outside of Europe to challenge the coloniality of the age and to forge a new vision of politics in the postcolonial period. This course is an advanced seminar devoted to a comprehensive examination of Fanon's political thought. We will begin with an analysis of primary texts by Fanon and end by considering how Fanon has been interpreted by his contemporaries as well as activists and critical theorists writing today. [ more ]

LEAD 362 TThe Wilsonian Tradition in American Foreign Policy

Not offered this year

During and after the First World War, President Woodrow Wilson developed an approach to international relations that challenged the dominant assumptions of Realism. Instead of a world order marked by alliances, arms races, and wars, Wilson offered a vision of a peaceful world and the rule of international law. While America ultimately rejected the League of Nations, the Wilsonian tradition has continued to exert a powerful influence on scholars and policymakers. This tutorial will intensively examine Wilson's efforts to recast the nature of the international system, the American rejection of his vision after the First World War, and the reshaping of Wilsonianism after the Second World War. We will spend equal time in the tutorial on both the theoretical and historical dimensions of Wilsonianism. [ more ]

LEAD 365(S)U.S. Grand Strategy

This course examines how U.S. leaders have conceived of their nation's place in the world and sought to use power to achieve national objectives. We will consider military affairs, economics, and diplomacy, but the class is mostly concerned with ideas. How have leaders from James Madison to George W. Bush thought about U.S. vulnerabilities, resources, and goals, and how have those ideas influenced foreign policy decisions? How did key leaders balance competing objectives and navigate difficult international circumstances? Which leaders were successful in managing U.S. statecraft, and which were not? Which leaders developed coherent grand strategies? What lessons might we derive for our own times from studying this history? The course will sweep across American history but will not attempt to be exhaustive in any way. Rather, it will focus on certain moments that highlight changing grand strategic thought. We will carefully consider, for example, the drafting of the U.S. Constitution, continental expansion in the Manifest Destiny period, the Civil War, overseas expansion in the late nineteenth century, the presidency of Woodrow Wilson, the Second World War, the Cold War, and the "War on Terror." Possible texts include Hamilton, Madison, and Jay, The Federalist Papers; Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History; George Kennan, American Diplomacy; Richard Immerman, Empire for Liberty; Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy; James McPherson, Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief; and a collection of primary sources. [ more ]

Taught by: Douglas MacDonald

Catalog details

LEAD 397(F)Independent Study: Leadership Studies

Leadership Studies independent study. Permission of the chair of Leadership Studies required. [ more ]

LEAD 398(S)Independent Study: Leadership Studies

Leadership Studies independent study. Permission of the chair of Leadership Studies required. [ more ]

LEAD 402(S)The Art of Presidential Leadership

In this seminar, we will focus on the leadership of some of the greatest American presidents--Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt--as well as some of the most controversial--Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, and Ronald Reagan. We will investigate how these presidents developed as leaders before as well as after their election to the presidency. How did they determine their goals, assemble their leadership teams, and mobilize followers? What challenges did they face and what principles guided them? What failures did they meet and why? Can we relate these historical examples to the American presidency today? Readings will include correspondence, speeches, biographies, and political analysis. [ more ]

LEAD 403Making it in Africa: Business in African History

Not offered this year

Although Africa has come to be known as a continent that relies heavily on foreign aid, that aid rarely reaches ordinary people. In fact, recent studies have suggested that foreign aid has not helped develop Africa. In spite of the staggering problems that ordinary Africans face, many see Africa--now more than ever before--as a place bursting with promise and opportunity, even if that opportunity may require challenges to conventional economic and political thinking. Increasingly, an innovative class of entrepreneurs is emerging in Africa that is hustling in the formal and informal economy in order to accumulate capital. This seminar will trace the social and cultural history of entrepreneurship in Africa from the 19th century to the present. We will explore the individual journeys of several entrepreneurs, the values and objectives they nurtured, the changes in the strategy and structure of the businesses they created, and the dynamic environments in which they each lived and worked. The course will also examine the long-term impact of entrepreneurial innovation and market evolution on African communities and governments. Readings will include histories, biographies, autobiographies, ethnographies, and novels. [ more ]

Taught by: TBA

Catalog details

LEAD 420The Great Transformation: America and Europe in the 20th Century

Not offered this year

At the beginning of the 20th century, Europe was at the center of world politics and the main player in the balance of power while America was a peripheral player in the international system. American involvement in European affairs was strictly limited. By the end of the 20th century, the states of Western Europe would become greatly integrated and the threat of war was virtually abolished. No longer an isolationist power, America would become intimately involved in every facet of European and world politics. This course examines this great and fundamental transformation of the international system. We will examine American involvement in both of the world wars, the defense of Europe during the Cold War, decolonization, and the uneven but steady development of European unity and integration in the second half of the 20th century. [ more ]

LEAD 453Researching Early America

Not offered this year

This research seminar will survey the rich history of early America (1607-1850) by focusing on the most momentous events and consequential individuals from the era. The course will also explore some of the most pressing historiographical questions and some of the research methods historians of the era deploy. Students will then select a topic that interests them and produce a substantive research paper. The course will also serve as a capstone course for Leadership Studies concentrators. [ more ]

LEAD 458Senior Seminar: The Vietnam War and the Vietnam Era, 1961-75

Not offered this year

This upper-level course has three major objectives. First, it will familiarize students with the basic political, military and diplomatic facts of the Vietnam War. Second, it will acquaint them more generally with broader aspects of the years 1954-75, especially the great political and cultural changes that took place within the United States beginning around 1965. Lastly, each student will have the opportunity to research and write about some aspect of one of these two topics in some detail. In so doing, students will learn some new research techniques that use up-to-date software, and may take advantage of the enormous opportunities now available for on-line research. [ more ]

LEAD 464The United States and the Vietnam War

Not offered this year

U.S. involvement in Vietnam affected nearly every aspect of American life, including the country's overall foreign policy, its military strategy, the relationship between various branches of government, the nation's political trajectory, the role of media in society, youth culture, race relations, and more. This seminar explores America's war in Vietnam and its dramatic ramifications at home and abroad. We will evaluate the Vietnam War era as a turning point in U.S. history--and in the role of the U.S. in the world--by reading and discussing a number of scholarly works on domestic and international aspects of the conflict. Students will develop an original research topic and research and write a 20- to 25- page paper, based in primary sources, on one aspect of America's Vietnam War. [ more ]

LEAD 475Modern Warfare and Military Leadership

Not offered this year

From the early nineteenth to the twenty-first century, modern history has been marked by numerous wars fought by nation states. Some of these wars were enormously destructive. Some changed history decisively on a continental or global scale. This modern period of warfare witnessed rapid and dramatic changes in the manner military forces were organized, armed, and led, and in their scale and lethalness. From the smoothbore musket to the machine gun, sailing warships to dreadnaught battleships, horse-pulled artillery to the atomic bomb, submarines under the seas and warplanes in the skies, to rockets and smart weapons, war rapidly evolved and continues to evolve today. This course will study these developments, concentrating on conflicts like the Napoleonic wars, the American Civil War, World War I and World War II, with special emphasis upon the evolution of military leaders like Napoleon, Grant and Lee, Moltke, Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin and Hitler, Nelson and Doenitz, Eisenhower and MacArthur. Is it leadership that provides the key to our understanding of modern warfare? Or is it technology? Or certain "timeless" military principles that transcend local historical contexts? Can history help us foresee the future of warfare? [ more ]